Rapid prototyping

Rapid Prototyping

Rapid prototyping is a group of technologies for the rapid production of parts that are fully functional and with their mechanical properties are very similar to the final product, which they can even replace. These technologies, also widely used in Evektor, include vacuum casting technology and 3D printing by FDM technology.

Printed part by FDM technology

3D Printing by FDM Technology

An advanced technology for the production of prototype parts is especially suitable for the production of individual parts. Production based on 3D data may take from several to dozens of hours. The result is a fully functional prototype part.

Rear car light

Vacuum Casting

Small series production of prototype and final parts in dozens or even hundreds of pieces. Production usually takes several days – depending on the number of produced parts and on the size and complexity of parts.

3D scanning

3D Optical Scanning

A quick check of manufactured parts or a transfer of physical parts into digital data. 3D optical scanning is suitable for the reconstruction of parts, e.g. by means of the reverse engineering method.

3D Printing by FDM Technology

Extremely advanced and progressive technology of prototype parts production. It is especially suitable for the production of individual parts and it´s also possible to produce non-demountable movable connections of two parts. The parts are created directly from the delivered 3D models which are prepared for 3D printing by our engineers. The printing of parts takes, depending on their size and complexity, from several to dozens of hours. Up to 80% costs on prototype parts production can be saved by 3D printing using the FDM method. The amount saved depends on the size and shape of parts and also on the type of original production technology.

Examples of 3D Printing

Rapid prototyping - Holder of pitotstatic tube - Printed part by FDM technology

Holder of Pitot-static Tube

A functional prototype part installed on the airplane for the purpose of verification during flight tests. A critical part with regard to rigidity and accuracy.

Rapid prototyping - 3D printing by FDM technology - outlet grill

Air Outlet Grill

The outlet grill was installed on the aircraft during flight tests of engine cooling system. Outlet grill dimensions: about 350 x 230 mm.

Rapid prototyping - 3D printing by FDM technology - rotor head prototype

Rotor Head Prototype

The rotor hub was assembled from several parts and equipped with other parts produced by “classical” manufacturing process. This rotor hub served for the purpose of design concept verification

FDM Technology is Especially Suitable

  • For production of functional prototypes of plastic parts with mechanical properties close to real pressed parts.
  • For parts which will find their application for production of mock-ups and visual samples.

Possibilities and Advantages of FDM Technology

  • This technology enables the production of practically any shape, including functional non-demountable assemblies and also the production of mechanisms parts thereof
  • Fast creation of parts from the delivered 3D models – you will obtain a functional part within hours or days at the latest (depending on complexity and size of a part).
  • The materials used for the production of parts by the FDM method are ABS plus, ABS-M30, PC (thermoplastic polycarbonate) and ULTEM 9085.
  • FDM is advanced and promising technology. We shall gladly provide you with more information during your visit at Evektor. We can also show you real parts produced by this technology.

Technical Parameters of Parts Produced by FDM Technology in Evektor

  • Maximum dimensions of parts are 914 x 609 x 914 mm. Larger parts can be produced from smaller parts by adhesive bonding. The accuracy and strength of bonded parts is very high.

We Accept Data in the Following 3D Formats

  • Catia V5, Catia V4, Pro/ENGINEER (Creo), STEP, IGES, VDA and STL (with sufficient accuracy).

Specification of the Used Materials

ABS plus

ABS-M30

  • By 5 – 70% stronger than standard ABS
  • Higher tensile strength, impact resistance and bending strength
  • Strength of connection of individual layers is significantly higher - longer service life of parts
  • Multipurpose material: suitable for production of functional parts
  • ABS-M30 specification downloadable (PDF)

PC (polycarbonate)

  • The most widespread industrial thermoplastic material
  • Accurate durable and stable – suitable for load carrying part
  • Excellent mechanical properties and thermal endurance
  • High tensile strength even for higher temperatures
  • PC material specification downloadable (PDF)

Termoplastic ULTEM 9085

  • Certified thermoplastic of ST class (flame, smoke, toxicity)
  • Chemically resistant and resistant to high temperatures
  • Ideal for use in transport means, such as cars, aircraft, buses, trains, ships, etc.
  • ULTEM 9085 specification (PDF)

Mechanical Properties of Resulting Product from ABS plus Material

Values were determined by test that defined the minimum theoretical strength. The maximum strength was reached in the defined cross-section. This strength isn’t maximum strength of material which is by up to 40% higher than that of standard ABS.  The maximum strength would be reached in a thinner cross-section where fibers would be put in layers in the loading direction only. Owing to the fact that most profile parts (pressed parts) are of a general shape and the direction of fiber is variable in individual sections and lower thickness of the wall is applied, the strength of a real pressed part will be more likely in the upper half of the strength range determined by tests.

  Tensile strength Bending strength
Test standard  ČSN EN ISO 527-2 ČSN EN ISO 178
Test articles Profile 10 x 4 mm Profile 10 x 4 mm, Struts 64 mm
Cut out from plate 26.1 MPa 48.7 MPa
FDM lengthwise** 27.0 MPa 55.5 MPa
FDM in layers*** 17.4 MPa 28.9 MPa
Strength of model made by FDM is, in comparison with standard ABS, in the following range:
In tension 60% - 114% (140%)  
In bending  67% - 103% (140%)  
Thermal endurance  82°C (without loading up to 96°C)  
The model is set to position for printing with regard to:  1. Required strength
2. Required quality of surface
3. Time of printing and model price

** In fiber direction
*** In direction of separation of individual layers

Vacuum Casting

The technology of vacuum casting is suitable for small series production of prototype and final parts, namely in tens or even hundreds of pieces. The accuracy of such manufactured parts is comparable with the accuracy of parts manufactured by the technology of plastic injection molding. The costs for the production of metal injection mold are therefore eliminated. Production is a matter of days, depending on the number of manufactured parts and on the size and complexity of parts.

Principle of Vacuum Casting

  • At first, the so called master model is created by means of 3D printing using FDM technology. However, the part supplied by the customer can be used as the master model instead.
  • The master model is embedded in silicone and after its removal the mould for casting is created which can be used multiple times.
  • Casting is carried out in the vacuum chamber. A special two-component material on the basis of polyurethane resin is used.

Suitable Applications

  • Production of plastic prototype parts.
  • Parts for dimension and function tests.
  • Design studies.
  • Low-series production of spare parts for which the original equipment is not available.

Advantages of Vacuum Casting Technology

  • Possibility of casting parts of complicated shapes, thin-wall parts or parts with negative bevels.
  • Production of small series of prototype or final parts (from dozens up to hundreds of pieces).
  • Favourable production costs in comparison with plastic injection moulding – the production of metal moulds is unnecessary.
  • Fast production – a matter of days.
  • The accuracy of production is comparable with the accuracy of parts manufactured by plastic injection moulding.
  • A wide range of possibilities for final surface treatment.

Equipment

  • Evektor has the MK Vacuum Casting Chamber System II produced by MK Technology
  • Maximum weight of a manufactured part: 6 000 g

3D Optical Scanning

3D optical scanning is in principle the transfer of a physical object into computer data by means of a 3D scanner. In comparison with contact measuring systems the optical scanner scans the entire surface at once. After scanning it creates a computer model of the scanned object and this enables its subsequent export to various data formats. A further function of the optical scanner is the comparison of the physical object with the CAD theoretical model and evaluation of the shape and position deviations.

Advantages of Optical Scanning

  • Immediate creation of a CAD model from the scanned data
  • High resolution and accuracy
  • Mobility of measuring equipment
  • Evaluation of deviations from the CAD data delivered by the customer, acquirement of sections, etc.
  • Export of data to various formats
  • Possibility of combination with methods of Rapid Prototyping or CAM systems
  • Flexibility – it is possible to measure objects ranging from several millimetres to several meters
  • Weight and size of the measured object are practically unlimited
  • After surface treatment glossy and transparent objects can be measured

Suitable Use

  • Digitalization of the objects for which no production documentation is available
  • Dimension and shape inspection of objects
  • Reconstruction of damaged objects

Optical Scanning Services

  • Digitalization of objects
  • Evaluation of customer’s CAD data quality
  • Reconstruction of objects and the subsequent creation of a model by means of FDM technologies
  • Measuring at the customer’s production site 

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